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Examine different optimizer modes
After reading tutorial 2, and the reading assignments, you are now ready to prepare a hands-on experiment in the use of SQL optimizations on your own Oracle database.  This assignment will allow you to see the differences in execution plan's based upon your current optimizer mode.
This exercise is conducted in several steps:
Step 1 – Create a plan table - From exercise 3-1, make sure that you have a plan table within your database to store in the execution plans.  This is done by executing the utlxplan.sql utility in the c:\oracle\ora81\rdbms\admin directory.
SQL > @c:\oracle\ora81\rdbms\admin\utlxplan
Table created.
Step 2 – Analyze your schema - Once you have a plan table and place, you should then be able to view the execution plan for the following query against the pubs database. 
SQL > exec dbms_utility.analyze_schema('PUBS', 'COMPUTE');
PL/SQL Procedure Successfully Completed.
Step 3 - Save a query – In this step, you copy a sample query onto your c: directory and save it as book_sales.sql.  Here is the script to copy:
set pages 999;
column c0 heading 'Publisher|Name' format a20
column c1 heading 'Book|Title'      format a30   
column c2 heading 'Total|Sales'     format $9,999,999.99
break on c0 skip 1
compute sum of c2 on c0
  pub_name                          c0,
  book_title                        c1,
  sum(quantity)*book_retail_price   c2
  sales            s,
  book             b,
  publisher        p
  b.book_key = s.book_key
  p.pub_key = b.pub_key
group by
order by
Step 4 – Run a test script – Your assignment is to change the overall optimizer mode for your database.  As we recall, the optimizer mode can be changed at the system level, session level or query level. We will now change the optimizer mode for our session with these commands:
alter session set optimizer_goal=rule;
alter session set optimizer_goal=first_rows;
Create a script called test_modes.sql that contains the following statements.  Note that we are changing the optimizer goal to rule, running the query, and then change the optimizer goal to first_rows and re-run the query.
spool t.lst
set autotrace traceonly explain
set timing on
set echo on
alter session set optimizer_goal = rule;
alter session set optimizer_goal = first_rows;
spool off;
host notepad t.lst
Step 5 – Run the script and view the execution plans – The final step is to run the test_modes.sql script and e-mail the results to your instructor. 
Your deliverables will be:
1 - Submit the execution plans of the test_modes script to your instructor.
2 – Note the execution times for each query.
3 – Speculate about why the first_rows optimization did not have the same execution plan as the rule-based execution plan.
4 – Was there a significant difference in the execution times for the query?  Speculate about the differences (or lack thereof) in the execution times.



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